With the enhancement of wind tunnel testing capabilities and the emergence of computer simulations, a large number of aerodynamic devices have been used in F1 racing cars. The most obvious is the installation of rows of fixed wings at the front and rear of the car. These fixed wings act as spoilers, which can generate downforce, but at the same time generate aerodynamic drag. The front wing provides approximately 25% of the total downforce of the car, and the rear wing provides approximately 1/3 of the total downforce. The front and rear fixed wings contain many components, and the angles of the wings are independently adjustable. At the outermost end, the fixed wing is connected to the longitudinal end plate to maximize the airflow and prevent airflow from overflowing from the end of the wing to reduce efficiency.
Different races have different aerodynamic requirements. Generally speaking, the so-called low-speed track with short straight track and many corners needs high downforce. For example, the Monte Carlo track in Monaco needs to increase the angle of the fixed wing; Some high-speed tracks with long straights, such as the Monza circuit in Italy, require a smaller fixed wing angle in order to reduce the aerodynamic drag on the straight. However, in fact, a large number of F1 tracks can not be simply classified as low-speed or high-speed tracks. Newly built tracks are often mixed-track, with slow bends, high-speed bends and long straights. It is closely integrated with the test data.
The bottom plate of the car is also an important aerodynamic device, which is to mount the carbon fiber board directly under the chassis. The relationship between the bottom plate and the diffuser below the fixed wing of the race car is critical. The upwardly tilting diffuser increases the distance between the racing floor and the runway surface, reducing the speed of air flow at that part, which is equivalent to changing in a river. When wide, the speed of the water flow is reduced. In order to reduce the speed of the car, the downforce must be reduced. In recent years, the FIA has imposed strict restrictions on the height of the front wing, the position of the rear wing, and the size of the floor. In particular, the rules of the 2005 season have reduced the pressure on the F1 car. Nearly 20%, the average lap time at the beginning of the 2005 season increased by 2-3 seconds compared to the 2004 season. Other F1 racing aerodynamics also include various baffles and wings mounted on the body. These devices are mainly used to divert airflow. For example, the deflector at the rear of the front wheel is used to comb the rear of the wheel. The resulting turbulent flow makes it smooth into the radiator port of the side box of the car to improve cooling efficiency.